Postagem em destaque

Lagoa do Tabuba

Wednesday, July 8, 2015

some of the advantages of the place where I live

Cordovil, which is the place where I live here in Rio is not as good as the other neighborhoods.
Ana, who lives in an apartment with me, has been my wife for 3 years.
Never go to houses whose owners you don't know.

Marcello called Cristiane after she had finished her dinner.
Although complained about lots of assignments, master students can handle the situation.
The whole city was saddened when Leandro died.


Although adverb subordinate clauses contain at least one subject and one verb, they begin with words that make them dependent. In other words, these clauses have to be attached to independent clauses that provide additional information in order for them to make sense.
Let’s look at some examples:
  • Because it might rain, I will bring an umbrella to the festival.
  • Although your mother doesn’t like him, she must admit that he plays the piano beautifully.
  • Whenever we leave the beach at dinner time, we get pizza at the brewery.
  • Unless you would rather ride by yourself, we should drive home together. 
  • So that you don’t have to pay a fine, you better not park in front of that fire hydrant.
  • After she finished the interview, Emma felt relieved.

  • For each of the above, notice how we have answered a potential question the reader might ask. Adverb clauses will describe the verb and add detail to your sentences. In the first example above, the adverb clause clarifies why Fiona is “bringing” the umbrella. Also, when you learn about the four sentence types, you will discover that adverb clauses create a unique type of sentence.
    You should consider keeping a list of these subordinating conjunctions as you write so that you can begin to work these into your sentences. As you use them, they will become a natural part of your writing style.

    Placement and Punctuation of Adverb Subordinate Clauses:

    Adverb Subordinate Clauses require a comma if they are placed before the main clause. You are free to place an adverb subordinate clause before or after the main clause. Here are some examples:
    • Because it might rain, I will bring an umbrella to the festival. (comma)
    • I will bring an umbrella to the festival because it might rain. (no comma)
    • Whenever we leave the beach at dinner time, we get pizza at the brewery.
    • We get pizza at the brewery whenever we leave the beach at dinner time.
    • Unless you would rather ride by yourself, we should drive home together.
    • We should drive home together unless you would rather ride by yourself.
    • So that you don’t have to pay a fine, you better not park in front of that hydrant!
    • You better not park in front of that hydrant so that you don’t have to pay a fine!
    • After she finished the interview, Emma felt relieved.
    • Emma felt relieved after she finished the interview.

    In each of the examples, notice how the adverb subordinate clauses can go either before or after the main sentence. The rule is simply to place a comma after the clause if it precedes the main sentence, but generally to omit the comma if it appears after the main sentence.
    Which of the versions of sentences above do you prefer? Which placement (before or after) gets your attention and produces a strong sentence? Your answers to these questions will help you to begin to think about your writing style.
    For greater emphasis, many writers will place adverb subordinate clauses at the beginning of their sentences rather than after. This is also true of many arguments when writers qualify their position before stating their main argument.
    To review, there are two rules to remember when punctuating adverb subordinate clauses:
  1. If the clause is at the beginning of the sentence, use a comma after the clause.
  2. If the clause is at the end of the sentence, you will generally not use a comma.
There is, however, an exception to rule #2:
If the clause comes at the end of the sentence and is contrasting or contradictory, then you insert a comma. For example:
  • He cleaned the kitchen, whereas his roommate sat on the couch eating pizza.
In this case, you use a comma because the clause comes at the end of the sentence and is also a contradictory idea.

Adverb Subordinate Clauses:

In order to add concrete detail and to construct more elaborate sentences, you will need to learn about and use adverbial subordinate clauses. Adverb subordinate clauses, as the name suggests, will modify a verb by describing how, when, why, where, or under what condition something is happening or someone is doing an action. Note that these clauses, like adjective subordinate clauses, will not stand on their own. Rather, they will be added to a sentence to provide additional description and information. However, adverb subordinate conjunctions are easy to spot and use. The most noticeable characteristic of adverb subordinate clauses is that they will begin with one of the subordinate conjunctions that you learned about in Unit 2. Here is the list again:
Cause or
Concession Condition Comparison
or Contrast
Purpose Space or Time
even though
even if
rather than
in order that
so that
Subordinating Conjunctions signal dependent clauses. You learned about subordinating conjunctions in Unit 2, so take a look at the list again:
Cause or
Concession Condition Comparison
or Contrast
Purpose Space or Time
even though
even if
rather than
in order that
so that

Friday, July 3, 2015

Action verbs

1) Tom got promoted yesterday.
2) I think Tom knows how do deal with people.
3) Tom always gets what he wants.

Write 5-6 sentences describing a scene and underline the subjects of your sentences.

1) Dave and Sarah went to the restaurant.
2) They went there to celebrate their wedding anniversary.
3) He ordered a beef stroganoff and she ordered spaghetti with meatballs.
4) They asked for cokes for them.
5) For desert they had a fruit salad.

Monday, June 22, 2015

Five to ten nouns

Ana Lucia,

10 adjectives:
large, small, red, yellow, blissful, African, French, brave, stale, bored, unpleasant

Verbs and adverbs

to ring
to cry
to buy
to die
to wake up


The phone rang soon.
The dog barked loudly.
The cat slept quietly.
Ana Lucia cryes loudly.
Leonardo smiles briefly.

Sunday, June 7, 2015

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Tuesday, April 21, 2015


The Definite Article - (The)

We use "the" to talk about something we already know!
The boy - O menino
The boys - Os meninos
The girl - A menina
The girls - As meninas
When to use the Definite Article:

1.Before already mentioned nouns:
He wrote some letters and postcards. The letters were to his girlfriend.
Ele escreveu algumas cartas e cartões-postais. As cartas eram para sua namorada.
Mary bought a funny dress. The dress is full of small animals and big flowers.
Mary comprou um vestido engraçado. O vestido é cheio de animaizinhos e flores enormes.
2. Unique nouns on their species:
The Sun (o sol), the Moon (a lua), the sky (o céu), the planet Earth (o planeta Terra), the universe (o universo), etc.
3.  Geoghrapical names:
The Amazonas River, The Pacif Ocean, The English Channel (O Canal da Mancha), The North Pole, The Sahara, The Gulf of Mexico, The Bahamas, The Alps, etc.
4. Adjectives used as nouns in the plural form:
The poor (os pobres), The powerful (os poderosos), The good (os bons), The bad (os maus)
Obs: How can we do with the nouns on the singular form? for example: "o poderoso" or "a pobre"?
The powerful man helped the poor woman. (O poderoso ajudou a pobre.)
5. Compound nouns form countries:
The United Kingdom (o Reino Unido)
The United States (os Estados Unidos)
The United Arab Emirates (os Emirados Árabes Unidos)
The Dominican Republic (a República Dominicana) 

Plural of Nouns

General rule:

As in Portuguese, the great majority of nouns have its plurals just by adding a "s" at the end of the word:
a pencil    eighteen pencils
a car           a garage full of cars (uma garagem cheia de carros)
a book       two books
a cat            three  cats
a computer /  four computers
a cup / five cups
a garden / six gardens
a sweatshirt / seven sweatshirts
a table / eight  tables
a week / nine weeks 
1. Nouns that end in "ch, s, ss, sh, x, z" and most of the nouns which end in "o":
we add "es" at the end of the word. Examples:
one dress - a rack of dresses (uma estante de roupas)
one buzz - many buzzes of many bees (muitos zunidos de muitas abelhas)

2. -ch:
church - churches (igrejas)
match - matches (fósforos)
watch - watches (relógios)
Exceptions: Nouns that end in "ch" with a /K/ sound, we add only "S".
conch - conchs (conchas)
monarch - monarchs (monarcas)
patriarch - patriarchs (patriarcas)
stomach - stomachs (estômagos)
3. -s:
bus - buses (ônibus)
4. -ss:
class - classes (aulas)
glass - glasses (copos)
kiss - kisses (beijos)
5. -sh:
brush -brushes (escovas)
crash - crashes (colisões)
flash - flashes (lampejos)
wish - wishes (desejos)
6. -x:
box - boxes (caixas)
fox - foxes (raposas)
7. -z:
topaz - topazes (topázios)
Exception: Although, there are nouns ending in only one "z" that  we form the plural by adding two "z's". Example:
quiz - quizzes
8. -o:
echo - echoes (ecos)
superhero - superheroes (super-heróis)
potato - potatoes (batatas)
tomato - tomatoes (tomates)
Exceptions: On the reduced forms and words of foreig origin ending in "o", we add only a "s".
avocado - avocados (abacates)
cello - cellos (violoncelos)
commando - commandos (comandos)
dynamo - dynamos (dínamos)
Eskimo - Eskimos (Esquimós)
ghetto - ghettos (guetos)
kilo - kilos (quilos)
libretto - librettos (libretos)
logo - logos (logotipos)
magneto - magnetos (magnetos)
photo - photos (fotos)
piano - pianos
portfolio - portfolios
radio - radios (rádios)
solo - solos (solos)
soprano - sopranos (sopranos)
studio - studios (estúdios)
tango - tangos (tangos)
video - videos (vídeos)
virtuoso - virtuosos (virtuosos)
The following words may have the plural in "s" or "es"; although "es" is more common!
buffalo / buffalo(e)s (búfalo)
mosquito / mosquito(e)s
tornado / tornado(e)s
9. Nouns that end in vowel + y: we add only "s" at the end of the word. Examples:
boy - boys (meninos)
day - days (dias)
donkey - donkeys (burros)
essay - essays (ensaios)
guy - guys (caras, sujeitos, rapazes)
key - keys (chaves)
monkey - monkeys (macacos)
play - plays (peças)
toy - toys (brinquedos)
soliloquy (monólogo) / soliloquies.
10. Nouns that end in consonant + y, we drop the "y" and we add "ies".
baby (bebê) = babies
body (corpo) bodies
city (cidade) cities
country (país) countries
dictionary (dicionário) dictionaries
family (família) families
ferry (balsa) ferries
fly (mosca) flies
lady (senhora, dama) ladies
party (festa) parties
sky (céu) skies
story (narrativa) stories
          Irregular Plural
man - men (homens)
woman - women (mulheres)
gentleman - gentlemen (cavalheiros)
child - children (crianças)*
ox - oxen (bois)
person - people (pessoas)
tooth - teeth (dentes)
foot - feet (pés)
goose - geese (gansos)
mouse - mice (camundongos)
louse - lice (piolhos)
die - dice (dados)
Egs.: How many children do you have? (Quantos filhos vocês tem?)
Do you have any child between the ages of 5 and 15? (Vocês têm filhos nas idades entre 5 ou 15 anos?)
Irregular plural ending in "ves"
calf - calves (bezerros)
elf - elves (elfos, duendes)
half - halves (metades)
leaf - leaves (folhas)
life - lives (vidas)
knife - knives (facas)
loaf - loaves (pães de forma)
self - selves (egos)
sheaf - sheaves (feixes)
shelf - shelves (prateleiras)
thief - thieves (ladrões)
wife - wives (esposas)
wolf - wolves (lobos)
Some nouns ending in  "f" may follow the general rule:
scarf - scarfs/scarves (cachecóis)
dwarf - dwarfs/dwarves (anões)
hoof - hoofs/hooves (cascos)
wharf - wharfs/wharves (cais)
staff - staffs/staves (equipes, quadros de funcionários, departamentos)
         Obs: scarves, hooves and wharves are more common.

The other nouns ending in "f" or "fe" follow the general rule:
belief - beliefs (crenças)
brief - briefs (sumários, resumos)
cliff - cliffs (penhascos)
chief - chiefs (chefes)
cuff - cuffs (punhos de camisa)
grief - griefs (dores, sofrimentos)
handkerchief - handkerchiefs (lenços)
roof - roofs (telhados)
gulf - gulfs (golfos)
safe - safes (cofres)
proof - proofs (provas)
cuff - cuffs (punhos de manga, bainhas)
reef - reefs (recifes)
         pluralia tantrum

These only exist in plural.  There is no singular form!

These jeans were expensive.(Este jeans foi caro.) - Not: "This jeans was..."

I'm looking for some violet jeans.(Eu procuro um jeans violeta.) - Not "...a violet jeans"

Where are my glasses? (Onde estão meus óculos?)- Not "Where is my glasses?"
binoculars - binóculo(s)
belongings - pertences
drawers - ceroulas
glasses / eyeglasses / spectacles - óculos
headphones - fone(s) de ouvido
jeans - jeans
knickers - calcinha(s)
outskirts - margem(s) da cidade
scales - balança(s)
scissors - tesoura(s)
shorts - shorts
slack / pants / trousers  - calça(s)
pliers - alicate(s)
pyjamas / pajamas - pijama(s)
tights - meia(s)-calça(s)
underpants - cuecas
"False plurals": 
Politics is a complicated business which most people detest.
(Política é um negócio complicado o qual a maioria das pessoas detesta.)
Acoustics (Acústica)
Athletics (Atletismo)
Electronics (Eletrônica)
Genetics (Genética)
Linguistics (Linguística)
Mathematics (Matemática)
Physics (Física)
Politics (Política)
Statistics (Estatística)
-But we can say:
What are your politics? (Quais são suas políticas?)
The unemployment statistics are disturbing. (As estatísticas de desemprego são perturbadoras.)


Gender of Nouns

There are three genders in English:

Masculine:  boy, man, waiter, brother, groom;
Feminine: girl, woman, waitress, sister, bride;
Neuter: boat, shirt, person, lawyer, shark;

1. The great majority of nouns that refer to people and their professions/functions are neutral. Examples:
doctor - médico / médica                      
lawyer - advogado / advogada              
monarch - o monarca / a monarca        
teacher - professor / professora            
cook - cozinheiro / cozinheira          
student - aluno, o estudante / aluna, a estudante
driver - o motorista / a motorista
translator - o tradutor / a tradutora
guest - o convidado / a convidada
- Sometimes, names of ships or cars can be used in the femine gender.
*The ship struck a big rock which almost destroyed her.
(O navio bateu em uma grande rocha que quase "a" destruiu.)
*A ship "was nearer and dearer to the sailor than anyone except his mother". What better reason to call his ship "she"?
(Um navio era mais próximo e querido para ele do que qualquer pessoa, com a exceção de sua mãe. Que razão melhor do que essa para chamar seu navio de "ela"?)
*Look at his BMW. She is a beauty.
(Olha a BMW dele. Ela é uma belezura.)
The noun "moon" is considered feminine:
*The moon and her glorious beams enchanted everyone.
(A lua e seus raios gloriosos encantaram a todos.)

2.Different terminations:

prince (príncipe) - princess (princesa)
waiter (garçom) - waitress (garçonete)
baron (barão) - baroness (baronesa)
actor (ator) - actress (atriz)
god (deus) - goddess (deusa)
lion (leão) - lioness (leoa)
grandfather (avô) - grandmother (avó)
executor (executor) - executrix (executora)
prosecutor (promotor público) - prosecutrix (promotora pública)
hero (herói) - heroine (heroína)
sultan (sultão) - sultana (sultana)
czar (tzar) - czarina (tzarina)

3. We can add "man" or "maid" for people and "he" or "she" for animals.

manservant (criado) - maidservant (criada)
he-bear (urso) - she-bear (ursa)
cock-pigeon (pombo) - hen-pigeon (pomba)

Sunday, April 19, 2015

Speak English


  In this lesson, students learn vocabulary related to public transport as well as practical expressions to use at a train station, in a taxi and at an airport check-in desk. The lesson plan includes a listening activity with the option to play animated video clips representing the different transport situations. There is a role play exercise at the end of the worksheet. 

 Which types of transport above do you use?
 How often?

2 Listening

 Listen to the dialogues and put 1, 2 or 3:

1. At the train station
2. At the airport
3. In a taxi

Watch the videos and check your answers.




You can review this worksheet online at 1/3
Review your flashcards at least 3-5 times a week for 20 minutes to keep the material fresh in your memory.

3 Vocabulary and role play
Listen again and put the words under the pictures:

1)a boarding pass                2)a carry-on bag                3)a platform
4)a suitcase                         5)a window seat                6)an aisle seat

Now answer the questions:

1. What time is the next train to Brighton?
2. How much is a single ticket to Brighton?
3. Which platform does the train leave from?
4. How long will the taxi journey take?
5. Does Claire want a window seat or an aisle seat?
6. What bags does she have?
7. Did she pack her bags herself?

Check your answers by reading the dialogue on the next page. Then practise the dialogues with a partner. Use the information in the grey box. You can review this worksheet online at: 2/3

Review your flashcards at least 3-5 times a week for 20 minutes to keep the material fresh in your memory.

Dialogue 1

Station clerk: Can I help you?
Claire: Yes, what time is the next train to Brighton?
Station clerk: The next train is at 12.05.
Claire: OK. How much is a ticket?
Station clerk: Single or return?
Claire: Single.
Station clerk: A single ticket is 10 pounds.
Claire: OK, fine. One single please. Which platform does the train leave from?
Station clerk: The train leaves from Platform 2.

Dialogue 2

Taxi driver: Where to madam?
Claire: Clifford Road, in front of the cinema.
Taxi driver: Sure.
Claire: How long will it take?
Taxi driver: About 40 minutes.
Claire: 40 minutes?
Taxi driver: Yeah, the traffic is really bad today.

Dialogue 3

Check-in agent: Good morning. Can I have your passport, please?
Claire: Here you are.
Check-in agent: Would you like a window or an aisle seat?
Claire: An aisle seat, please.
Check-in agent: Do you have any baggage?
Claire: Yes, this suitcase and this carry-on bag.
Check-in agent: Did you pack your bags yourself?
Claire: Yes, I did.
Check-in agent: Here's your boarding pass. Have a nice flight.

Role play Train station Destination: Paris Next train: 16:45 Platform: 4 Type of ticket: return Price: 20 euro


Wednesday, April 1, 2015

Não desanime!

Então você tem uma prova para realizar daqui há três meses e está no "olho do furacão", enfrentando todos os desafios relacionados a ter que cobrir uma vasta quantidade de matéria para estudar em curto espaço de tempo? Seus problemas acabaram! O professor Marcello Bion está aqui para te ajudar nessa "caminhada" rumos aos seus objetivos!
Em primeiro lugar, faça o seu calendário pessoal e marque os dias e horários que você irá estudar, pelo menos o primeiro mês! Depois, crie "marcos" ou "marcadores" que balizem suas consecuções. Exemplo, supondo que sua primeira prova será daqui há três meses, um bom balizador seria estabelecer três datas (tipo de trinta em trinta dias) para você "visualizar" que "as coisas" estão caminhando! Não se esqueça de marcar também os seus compromissos (além de os feriados. Você irá estudar nesses dias? (Sim)/(Não)? Dê margem para ajustes!
Imprevistos acontecem: quedas de luz, chuvas torrencias, compromissos de última hora...
Tenha um "plano B".

EFOMM 2015

Monday, February 16, 2015

Cintia disse - Dicas de Inglês: Expressões Idiomáticas

The Pink Panther - Inspector Clouseau Learning English.

Força de vontade x "Dar murro em ponta de faca"

Boa tarde a todos Já tratei deste assunto aqui outras vezes mas não custa repetir. Você, adulto, precisa aprender Inglês ? Faça o seguinte: Entre em um curso ou procure um professor particular. Adquira um bom material didático. Não falte às aulas e nem chegue atrasado. Faça seus deveres de casa e estude com afinco as lições dadas em sala de aula. Fazendo isso você estará agindo da forma mais correta possível na sua empreitada de aprender Inglês e tentar ficar fluente. Mas preste muita atenção em algo extremamente importante: Se surgirem muitas dificuldades, tanto no aprendizado da matéria como em fatores externos como locomoção para as aulas, pagamento ou possíveis atrasos, faça uma de duas coisas: Tenha paciência, força de vontade e dedicação mas dê a você mesmo um prazo de seis meses. Se os problemas não forem resolvidos neste período e, se, principalmente, você estiver com dúvidas crônicas no seu aprendizado, faça um imenso favor a você, seu professor, e às pessoas que tenham contato pessoal e profissional com você: abandone os estudos. Sim, você não leu errado. Eu, o professor Fabio Costa e Silva, falei exatamente isso que você dificilmente vai ler em algum lugar que queira seu dinheiro. Teve muitas dificuldades por seis meses e fez tudo o que estava a seu alcance e não aprendeu nada ? Pare de dar murro em ponta de faca e desista. O motivo é bem simples: No mercado de trabalho hoje o ideal é saber Inglês e pelo menos mais uma língua mas o ser humano deve entender que, assim como existe habilidade, aptidão e pré-disposição para jogar futebol, tocar bem um instrumento musical ou fazer uma boa comida, existe também a aptidão para aprender idiomas e a verdade nua e crua é: embora todos precisem, assim como as outras aptidões mencionadas, nem todo mundo é capaz de conseguir fazer determinada tarefa. Um exemplo bem claro sou eu mesmo. Sou professor de Inglês há 9 anos. Dou mais de 40 aulas por semana. Tenho alunos em fila de espera de horários, já tive coluna em jornal, já escrevi 5 livros, já ouvi centenas de vezes que sou o melhor professor de Inglês que algum aluno já teve na vida mas, em outros campos tenho minhas limitações. Crônicas. Não sei cozinhar. Nem fritar ovo. Não sei trocar lâmpada. O motor de um carro, pra mim, é um livro em japonês. Na escola repeti o segundo ano do ensino Médio com média anual ZERO em Física. Na faculdade de Direito (depois me formei em Letras) repeti Processo Civil no quarto ano TRÊS VEZES. E não me formei. E sei que não sou burro por causa disso. Apenas não tenho aptidão. Lembre-se sempre: Faça o seu possível. Não tenha preguiça. Esforce-se ao máximo, mas, em relação ao aprendizado de um idioma estrangeiro, dê a você mesmo, caso esteja com muitas dificuldades, um prazo de seis meses para resolver estes problemas. Não resolveu ? PARE e concentre seus esforços em outra atividade. Você não é burro e nem covarde por causa disso. Apenas tem limitações em um campo da vida e isso acontece com TODO MUNDO. Abraço fraterno. POSTADO POR FABIO COSTA E SILVA



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