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terça-feira, 21 de abril de 2015

ARTICLES

The Definite Article - (The)

We use "the" to talk about something we already know!
The boy - O menino
The boys - Os meninos
The girl - A menina
The girls - As meninas
When to use the Definite Article:

1.Before already mentioned nouns:
He wrote some letters and postcards. The letters were to his girlfriend.
Ele escreveu algumas cartas e cartões-postais. As cartas eram para sua namorada.
Mary bought a funny dress. The dress is full of small animals and big flowers.
Mary comprou um vestido engraçado. O vestido é cheio de animaizinhos e flores enormes.
2. Unique nouns on their species:
The Sun (o sol), the Moon (a lua), the sky (o céu), the planet Earth (o planeta Terra), the universe (o universo), etc.
3.  Geoghrapical names:
The Amazonas River, The Pacif Ocean, The English Channel (O Canal da Mancha), The North Pole, The Sahara, The Gulf of Mexico, The Bahamas, The Alps, etc.
4. Adjectives used as nouns in the plural form:
The poor (os pobres), The powerful (os poderosos), The good (os bons), The bad (os maus)
Obs: How can we do with the nouns on the singular form? for example: "o poderoso" or "a pobre"?
The powerful man helped the poor woman. (O poderoso ajudou a pobre.)
5. Compound nouns form countries:
The United Kingdom (o Reino Unido)
The United States (os Estados Unidos)
The United Arab Emirates (os Emirados Árabes Unidos)
The Dominican Republic (a República Dominicana) 

Plural of Nouns

General rule:

As in Portuguese, the great majority of nouns have its plurals just by adding a "s" at the end of the word:
a pencil    eighteen pencils
a car           a garage full of cars (uma garagem cheia de carros)
a book       two books
a cat            three  cats
a computer /  four computers
a cup / five cups
a garden / six gardens
a sweatshirt / seven sweatshirts
a table / eight  tables
a week / nine weeks 
1. Nouns that end in "ch, s, ss, sh, x, z" and most of the nouns which end in "o":
we add "es" at the end of the word. Examples:
one dress - a rack of dresses (uma estante de roupas)
one buzz - many buzzes of many bees (muitos zunidos de muitas abelhas)

2. -ch:
church - churches (igrejas)
match - matches (fósforos)
watch - watches (relógios)
Exceptions: Nouns that end in "ch" with a /K/ sound, we add only "S".
conch - conchs (conchas)
monarch - monarchs (monarcas)
patriarch - patriarchs (patriarcas)
stomach - stomachs (estômagos)
3. -s:
bus - buses (ônibus)
4. -ss:
class - classes (aulas)
glass - glasses (copos)
kiss - kisses (beijos)
5. -sh:
brush -brushes (escovas)
crash - crashes (colisões)
flash - flashes (lampejos)
wish - wishes (desejos)
6. -x:
box - boxes (caixas)
fox - foxes (raposas)
7. -z:
topaz - topazes (topázios)
Exception: Although, there are nouns ending in only one "z" that  we form the plural by adding two "z's". Example:
quiz - quizzes
8. -o:
echo - echoes (ecos)
superhero - superheroes (super-heróis)
potato - potatoes (batatas)
tomato - tomatoes (tomates)
Exceptions: On the reduced forms and words of foreig origin ending in "o", we add only a "s".
avocado - avocados (abacates)
cello - cellos (violoncelos)
commando - commandos (comandos)
dynamo - dynamos (dínamos)
Eskimo - Eskimos (Esquimós)
ghetto - ghettos (guetos)
kilo - kilos (quilos)
libretto - librettos (libretos)
logo - logos (logotipos)
magneto - magnetos (magnetos)
photo - photos (fotos)
piano - pianos
portfolio - portfolios
radio - radios (rádios)
solo - solos (solos)
soprano - sopranos (sopranos)
studio - studios (estúdios)
tango - tangos (tangos)
video - videos (vídeos)
virtuoso - virtuosos (virtuosos)
The following words may have the plural in "s" or "es"; although "es" is more common!
buffalo / buffalo(e)s (búfalo)
mosquito / mosquito(e)s
tornado / tornado(e)s
9. Nouns that end in vowel + y: we add only "s" at the end of the word. Examples:
boy - boys (meninos)
day - days (dias)
donkey - donkeys (burros)
essay - essays (ensaios)
guy - guys (caras, sujeitos, rapazes)
key - keys (chaves)
monkey - monkeys (macacos)
play - plays (peças)
toy - toys (brinquedos)
Exception:
soliloquy (monólogo) / soliloquies.
10. Nouns that end in consonant + y, we drop the "y" and we add "ies".
baby (bebê) = babies
body (corpo) bodies
city (cidade) cities
country (país) countries
dictionary (dicionário) dictionaries
family (família) families
ferry (balsa) ferries
fly (mosca) flies
lady (senhora, dama) ladies
party (festa) parties
sky (céu) skies
story (narrativa) stories
          Irregular Plural
man - men (homens)
woman - women (mulheres)
gentleman - gentlemen (cavalheiros)
child - children (crianças)*
ox - oxen (bois)
person - people (pessoas)
tooth - teeth (dentes)
foot - feet (pés)
goose - geese (gansos)
mouse - mice (camundongos)
louse - lice (piolhos)
die - dice (dados)
Egs.: How many children do you have? (Quantos filhos vocês tem?)
Do you have any child between the ages of 5 and 15? (Vocês têm filhos nas idades entre 5 ou 15 anos?)
Irregular plural ending in "ves"
calf - calves (bezerros)
elf - elves (elfos, duendes)
half - halves (metades)
leaf - leaves (folhas)
life - lives (vidas)
knife - knives (facas)
loaf - loaves (pães de forma)
self - selves (egos)
sheaf - sheaves (feixes)
shelf - shelves (prateleiras)
thief - thieves (ladrões)
wife - wives (esposas)
wolf - wolves (lobos)
Some nouns ending in  "f" may follow the general rule:
scarf - scarfs/scarves (cachecóis)
dwarf - dwarfs/dwarves (anões)
hoof - hoofs/hooves (cascos)
wharf - wharfs/wharves (cais)
staff - staffs/staves (equipes, quadros de funcionários, departamentos)
         Obs: scarves, hooves and wharves are more common.

The other nouns ending in "f" or "fe" follow the general rule:
belief - beliefs (crenças)
brief - briefs (sumários, resumos)
cliff - cliffs (penhascos)
chief - chiefs (chefes)
cuff - cuffs (punhos de camisa)
grief - griefs (dores, sofrimentos)
handkerchief - handkerchiefs (lenços)
roof - roofs (telhados)
gulf - gulfs (golfos)
safe - safes (cofres)
proof - proofs (provas)
cuff - cuffs (punhos de manga, bainhas)
reef - reefs (recifes)
         pluralia tantrum

These only exist in plural.  There is no singular form!

These jeans were expensive.(Este jeans foi caro.) - Not: "This jeans was..."

I'm looking for some violet jeans.(Eu procuro um jeans violeta.) - Not "...a violet jeans"

Where are my glasses? (Onde estão meus óculos?)- Not "Where is my glasses?"
binoculars - binóculo(s)
belongings - pertences
drawers - ceroulas
glasses / eyeglasses / spectacles - óculos
headphones - fone(s) de ouvido
jeans - jeans
knickers - calcinha(s)
outskirts - margem(s) da cidade
scales - balança(s)
scissors - tesoura(s)
shorts - shorts
slack / pants / trousers  - calça(s)
pliers - alicate(s)
pyjamas / pajamas - pijama(s)
tights - meia(s)-calça(s)
underpants - cuecas
"False plurals": 
Politics is a complicated business which most people detest.
(Política é um negócio complicado o qual a maioria das pessoas detesta.)
Acoustics (Acústica)
Athletics (Atletismo)
Electronics (Eletrônica)
Genetics (Genética)
Linguistics (Linguística)
Mathematics (Matemática)
Physics (Física)
Politics (Política)
Statistics (Estatística)
-But we can say:
What are your politics? (Quais são suas políticas?)
The unemployment statistics are disturbing. (As estatísticas de desemprego são perturbadoras.)


 Source; http://www.solinguainglesa.com.br

Gender of Nouns

There are three genders in English:

Masculine:  boy, man, waiter, brother, groom;
Feminine: girl, woman, waitress, sister, bride;
Neuter: boat, shirt, person, lawyer, shark;

1. The great majority of nouns that refer to people and their professions/functions are neutral. Examples:
doctor - médico / médica                      
lawyer - advogado / advogada              
monarch - o monarca / a monarca        
teacher - professor / professora            
cook - cozinheiro / cozinheira          
student - aluno, o estudante / aluna, a estudante
driver - o motorista / a motorista
translator - o tradutor / a tradutora
guest - o convidado / a convidada
Obs:
- Sometimes, names of ships or cars can be used in the femine gender.
 Examples:
*The ship struck a big rock which almost destroyed her.
(O navio bateu em uma grande rocha que quase "a" destruiu.)
*A ship "was nearer and dearer to the sailor than anyone except his mother". What better reason to call his ship "she"?
(Um navio era mais próximo e querido para ele do que qualquer pessoa, com a exceção de sua mãe. Que razão melhor do que essa para chamar seu navio de "ela"?)
*Look at his BMW. She is a beauty.
(Olha a BMW dele. Ela é uma belezura.)
The noun "moon" is considered feminine:
*The moon and her glorious beams enchanted everyone.
(A lua e seus raios gloriosos encantaram a todos.)

2.Different terminations:

prince (príncipe) - princess (princesa)
waiter (garçom) - waitress (garçonete)
baron (barão) - baroness (baronesa)
actor (ator) - actress (atriz)
god (deus) - goddess (deusa)
lion (leão) - lioness (leoa)
grandfather (avô) - grandmother (avó)
executor (executor) - executrix (executora)
prosecutor (promotor público) - prosecutrix (promotora pública)
hero (herói) - heroine (heroína)
sultan (sultão) - sultana (sultana)
czar (tzar) - czarina (tzarina)

3. We can add "man" or "maid" for people and "he" or "she" for animals.

manservant (criado) - maidservant (criada)
he-bear (urso) - she-bear (ursa)
cock-pigeon (pombo) - hen-pigeon (pomba)
Source: www.sonlinguainglesa.com.br

domingo, 19 de abril de 2015

Speak English

Transport



  In this lesson, students learn vocabulary related to public transport as well as practical expressions to use at a train station, in a taxi and at an airport check-in desk. The lesson plan includes a listening activity with the option to play animated video clips representing the different transport situations. There is a role play exercise at the end of the worksheet. 

 Which types of transport above do you use?
 How often?
 Why?

2 Listening

 Listen to the dialogues and put 1, 2 or 3:

1. At the train station
2. At the airport
3. In a taxi

Watch the videos and check your answers.

1: http://linguahouse.com/r/2j

2: http://linguahouse.com/r/2k

3: http://linguahouse.com/r/2m


You can review this worksheet online at www.linguahouse.com/ex 1/3
Review your flashcards at least 3-5 times a week for 20 minutes to keep the material fresh in your memory.

3 Vocabulary and role play
Listen again and put the words under the pictures:


1)a boarding pass                2)a carry-on bag                3)a platform
4)a suitcase                         5)a window seat                6)an aisle seat

Now answer the questions:

1. What time is the next train to Brighton?
2. How much is a single ticket to Brighton?
3. Which platform does the train leave from?
4. How long will the taxi journey take?
5. Does Claire want a window seat or an aisle seat?
6. What bags does she have?
7. Did she pack her bags herself?

Check your answers by reading the dialogue on the next page. Then practise the dialogues with a partner. Use the information in the grey box. You can review this worksheet online at:

www.linguahouse.com/ex 2/3

Review your flashcards at least 3-5 times a week for 20 minutes to keep the material fresh in your memory.

Dialogue 1

Station clerk: Can I help you?
Claire: Yes, what time is the next train to Brighton?
Station clerk: The next train is at 12.05.
Claire: OK. How much is a ticket?
Station clerk: Single or return?
Claire: Single.
Station clerk: A single ticket is 10 pounds.
Claire: OK, fine. One single please. Which platform does the train leave from?
Station clerk: The train leaves from Platform 2.

Dialogue 2

Taxi driver: Where to madam?
Claire: Clifford Road, in front of the cinema.
Taxi driver: Sure.
Claire: How long will it take?
Taxi driver: About 40 minutes.
Claire: 40 minutes?
Taxi driver: Yeah, the traffic is really bad today.

Dialogue 3

Check-in agent: Good morning. Can I have your passport, please?
Claire: Here you are.
Check-in agent: Would you like a window or an aisle seat?
Claire: An aisle seat, please.
Check-in agent: Do you have any baggage?
Claire: Yes, this suitcase and this carry-on bag.
Check-in agent: Did you pack your bags yourself?
Claire: Yes, I did.
Check-in agent: Here's your boarding pass. Have a nice flight.

Role play Train station Destination: Paris Next train: 16:45 Platform: 4 Type of ticket: return Price: 20 euro

Source:

http://www.linguahouse.com/esl-lesson-plans/general-english/3379a118-18db-be04-2972-37c551d11eaa/transport.html

quarta-feira, 1 de abril de 2015

Não desanime!

Então você tem uma prova para realizar daqui há três meses e está no "olho do furacão", enfrentando todos os desafios relacionados a ter que cobrir uma vasta quantidade de matéria para estudar em curto espaço de tempo? Seus problemas acabaram! O professor Marcello Bion está aqui para te ajudar nessa "caminhada" rumos aos seus objetivos!
Em primeiro lugar, faça o seu calendário pessoal e marque os dias e horários que você irá estudar, pelo menos o primeiro mês! Depois, crie "marcos" ou "marcadores" que balizem suas consecuções. Exemplo, supondo que sua primeira prova será daqui há três meses, um bom balizador seria estabelecer três datas (tipo de trinta em trinta dias) para você "visualizar" que "as coisas" estão caminhando! Não se esqueça de marcar também os seus compromissos (além de os feriados. Você irá estudar nesses dias? (Sim)/(Não)? Dê margem para ajustes!
Imprevistos acontecem: quedas de luz, chuvas torrencias, compromissos de última hora...
Tenha um "plano B".

EFOMM 2015

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